These days we come across many poisoning cases in our surroundings which may be because of suicide attempt or attempt to murder someone and it can also be the accidental intake of poisonous substance. Emergency treatment for Poisoning is very essential for saving the life of the patient. Poisoning occurs mainly due to the intake of pesticides or intake of heavy metals like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury etc.
Following steps can be taken to prevent the fatal consequences of the poisoning:
- Taking the patient to the calm place and he should lie down peacefully and the crowd of people should be avoided which prevents fresh air to the patient.
- The pulse, blood pressure and heart rate of the patient should be examined and it should be tried to stabilize using oxygen if available.
- Emesis can be done if the poison is not corrosive or strong for the mucous membrane. Emesis can be done by giving syrup of ipecac or by tapping at the back of the patient. But emesis can only be performed if the patient is conscious.
- Catharsis can be done by the use of enema but it is not recommended since it takes a lot of time for the substance to get excreted in feces.
- The universal antidote can be given which is a mixture of activated charcoal, milk of magnesia and tannic acid.
- Gastric lavage can be performed if the patient is cooperative by inserting soft tubes through the mouth and washing the gastric chamber with saline.
- Blood dialysis is a very good option and it can prove life-saving for many patients and it is highly recommended.
- For heavy metals, specific antidotes like D-Penicillamine and BAL are employed(these drugs form complex with the metal molecules which can be easily excreted by the kidney)
- Mouth to mouth resuscitation is a good option if the patient has difficulty in breathing.
These are the most common treatments for poisoning and one can try anything that is possible until the medical treatment begins.