Tuberculosis is a disease which is more prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. This is one of the worst of all the diseases.Since it is hard to detect early and it takes the ridiculously long time to get cured completely.The treatment is quite troublesome and the medicines used for the treatment have a lot of side effects as well. It is more common in children due to low immune power.We should be well aware of the Tuberculosis information for kids since children have more risk of getting infected.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative bacteria for this disease. It also causes infection in certain animals. It can be transmitted through air and water also. It is initially not recognized but later when the symptoms turn severe it indicates Tuberculosis. The pulmonary tuberculosis is most common types of T.B.
- Persistent cough for more than 2-3 weeks.
- Coughing severely with more sputum.
- Weight loss
- Sweating at night
- Loss of appetite
- Pain in the chest
A skin reaction test is a common test but it is not very accurate. The tuberculin toxin is injected into the upper layers of the skin and it is observed for any swelling. A swelling indicates the positive test for T.B.
A more accurate and better test is a chest X-ray which can tell more about the infection and its severity in the chest.
Treatment should be started immediately if the tests are positive. If not treated properly this infection can be fatal. The treatment involves following options:
- The combination of antibiotic drugs. These drugs may be major drugs ( First line treatment) or less potent drugs ( Second line treatment). The second line treatment is adopted as synergistic with the first line.
- Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Streptomycin and Ethambutol are first-line treatment drugs. They are used in combination since the bacteria is not so easy for a single antibiotic to kill.
- Second line drugs include Para-aminosalicylic acid, Cycloserine, Amikacin, Capreomycin etc.
The treatment regimen involves daily dosing of first line drugs for first to months (combination depends on the sensitivity of the organism)and then continuing the treatment for at least 6 months. The treatment should not be ignored since there is a chance of relapse of the infection if not fully cured. The main purpose of using the combination is that the organism may develop resistance to a single antibiotic.
Additionally, the nutrition treatment is also given to regain the weight. Plenty intake of fruits and fresh vegetables is advisable. Along with high protein diet.